The contribution deals with the impact of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union on agriculture of the Czech and Slovak Republic, focusing on livestock production. The analysis is focused on ten years’ development of livestock production after the entry of the Czech and Slovak Republic into the EU. Both countries are evaluated in the mutual comparison of selected indicators such as gross agricultural production, stock of animals, intensity of production or agricultural employment. Part of the contribution is the demonstration of the regional differentiation and trends in livestock production taking place in the Czech and Slovak Republic. In conclusion, we examine the consequences of decline in livestock production in the Czech and Slovak Republic reflected in the foreign trade between these countries, and it is closely connected with state sovereignty in livestock products.