Author: Sofiane Bounaceur
, Ahmed Boumediene
, Hocine Nechniche
and Ghouti Abdellaoui
The notion of mobility within the geographical space was founded on the decisions and activities of humans, whether in their daily life or certain specific professions (railway stations, airports, hospitals). The state of the transport structure networks and the efficiency and quality of their functioning create a spatial heterogeneity which results in more or less uncomfortable access conditions for the movement between two locations, thus affecting travel time. Measurements obtained through complete microscopic simulations determine any increase in value in travel time, which in turn makes it possible to predict network performance within congestion situation (functional vulnerability). In this paper, the authors suggest a GIS method in under to evaluate the intrinsic degrees of vulnerability based on travel time in the road network of Tlemcen city (Algeria) as well as on the structural and functional state of the road network and the way length in order to optimize the travel time required for a hospital emergency service. This may reduce casualities, all too often caused by choosing an inappropriate route.
Author: Cristina Lupu
, Peng Xie
and Ionel Muntele
The analyse of land-use change has a meaningful importance in scholars research. Hence, the influence of the urbanisation beneath the conditions that lead to the increase of tourism activity in urban areas it is connected with the extinction of the land-use space. Given the fact that the development of urbanisation leads to tourism development, this paper aims to shape a model of urban growth for the city of Iaşi which emphasises the spatio-temporal growth of the city with impact on tourism growth. The data used was Corine Land Cover (CLC) for 2000 and 2006 years. The type of land use, the areas and the relationship of the driving factors were identified for further analysis. The methodology included Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis and statistic functions of it. In order to obtain the model of urban growth which sustains the hypothesis that the urban increase leads to tourism development, an urban growth simulation was made through Pyhton language programming by cellular automata (CA) method.
Author: Yunliang Meng
This paper explores police stop and search practices in Toronto using the 2003-2012 data from Toronto Police Service. The findings demonstrate that for black youth, the number of stops and the stops/arrests ratios increased significantly by 42.7% and 44.9% respectively between 2003 and 2012, while for white youth, both indices decreased steadily during the same period. Moreover, they show that police stops of black youth occur most excessively in neighbourhoods where more white people reside and/or have higher crime rates. This article argues for the importance of a contextualized examination of police stops within the spatial context of neighbourhoods and calls for open and free access to police stop data, regular internal review by police, and community policing in Toronto.
Author: Yunliang Meng
and Jacek Malczewski
This paper presents a Geographic Information System based Multicriteria Decision Making approach for evaluating accessibility to public parks in Calgary, Alberta. The approach involves the weighted linear combination with the entropy weighting method for obtaining the criterion (attribute) weights. The paper demonstrates a core-periphery pattern of accessibility to public parks in Calgary. Furthermore, the pattern has shown tendency to be more polarized between the year of 2006 and 2011. The results of this research can help the park planning authorities in identifying the needs for improving the accessibility to public parks, monitoring the changes of accessibility patterns over time, and locating new public parks. The results can also help the general public to better understand the spatial relationship between their neighbourhoods and public parks in the city.
Author: Carlos Siordia
, Joseph Saenz
and Sarah E. Tom
Type II diabetes is a growing health problem in the United States. Understanding geographic variation in diabetes prevalence will inform where resources for management and prevention should be allocated. Investigations of the correlates of diabetes prevalence have largely ignored how spatial nonstationarity might play a role in the macro-level distribution of diabetes. This paper introduces the reader to the concept of spatial nonstationarity—variance in statistical relationships as a function of geographical location. Since spatial nonstationarity means different predictors can have varying effects on model outcomes, we make use of a geographically weighed regression to calculate correlates of diabetes as a function of geographic location. By doing so, we demonstrate an exploratory example in which the diabetes-poverty macro-level statistical relationship varies as a function of location. In particular, we provide evidence that when predicting macro-level diabetes prevalence, poverty is not always positively associated with diabetes.
Author: Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrișor
While cities appeared and disappeared during the history, and different disciplines, such as ecology and geography attempted to model the process from a systemic perspective, the growth of modern cities, particularly under the form of urban sprawl, is an important phenomenon due to its environmental and socioeconomic impacts. CORINE data allow for analyzing the growth of cities based on the changes in land cover and use. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of long-term urban growth in Romania, chosen as an example of a transition country, hypothesizing that the phenomenon is visible at the national scale. The results locate urban growth in area where the real estate boom is prominent, but its extent is masked by the small share of urban areas from the total territory. If growth is analyzed in relationship to the urban area, its magnitude becomes visible, supporting the underlying hypothesis.
Author: Gabriel Simion
Farm fragmentation, in which a household operates more than one separate parcel of land, is common phenomenon in the Romanian agriculture. Two case studies of land fragmentation in Bucharest metropolitan area were conducted to develop appropriate techniques for quantifying it…