Journal Archives

A quantitative analysis of farmland and households’ livelihood in rural Vietnam

Author: , , and

Using data from the 2014 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, this study employs cluster analysis techniques to provide the first classification of five livelihood strategies pursued by rural households. The methodology also included a comparison between the per capita household income across livelihood strategies using the Bonferroni pairwise tests. The authors found that households with non-farming or wage-earning livelihoods achieved the highest income levels, while those depending on farm-related incomes or a mix of wage-earning and farm-related incomes had the lowest income levels. Furthermore, factors associated with the choice of livelihoods were investigated using a multinomial logit model. The findings reveal that farmland is negatively associated with the choice of high return livelihood strategies. This suggests that access to farmland is not a potential barrier to the pursuit of lucrative strategies. In addition, the education level of household heads proved to have a positive effect on the pursuit of remunerative strategies. The authors also found that households living in communes with minimal infrastructure and non-farming job opportunities have a more significant chance to adopt high-return livelihoods.

Keywords: , , , ,
Issue: Volume 13, Issue 2, 2019

Pre‐colonial and colonial forest culture in the Presidency of Bengal


Indian forest based culture has a long history. Until the British colonial rule (1757 -1947), Indian forest has been controlled and used by several monarchies. The features of forest based livelihoods were also quite different from one period to another. Before Muslim period, Indian forest used to be considered as an important source of resource, but exploitation was quite less compared to total forest cover. People used to admire native forest for the role it used to play. However, during Muslim and early British period (East India Company period, 1757 – 1857) forest was considered only as the source of timber. To produce farmland a considerable amount of forest cover was also destroyed. After the handover of the colonial power (1857), the British government realised the importance of forests for revenue generation and implemented several rules and regulations to control the ‘illicit’ timber felling. This forest management strategy was followed even after independence (1947) until the JFM system was implemented.

Keywords: , , , ,
Issue: Volume 5, Issue 1, 2011