Author: Moses Olaniran Olawole
and Adewale Mukhtar Olayiwola
This study examined the pedestrians’ safe and unsafe behaviour before and during street crossing in three cities in South Western Nigeria. 1,214 pedestrians were observed at crossing sites using direct observation approach. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression. In all, 730 (60.1%) of the observed pedestrians were male, and 484 (39.9%) were female. The analysis of the data showed that safe crossing practices were generally high, as over 50% of pedestrians at different stages of the crossing process were categorized as exhibiting safe observation behaviour. In terms of crossing tempo, Chi-square test revealed significant difference between male (65.1%) than female (56.0%) pedestrians (χ2=10.12, d=1, p=0.000). While ANOVA showed significant variation in the risky crossing behaviour among the cities (F (2, 1211) =71.93, P< 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that adult pedestrians are 0.79 times more likely to exhibit safe crossing behaviour than younger pedestrians and pedestrians are 0.42 times more likely to exhibit safe crossing when vehicles are moving on one side of the road than when there is no vehicular movement. The study suggests measures to enhance safe street crossing behaviour in the sampled cities and other cities in Nigeria.
Author: Walid Hamma
and Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrișor
Urbanization is a worldwide process, occurring rapidly with adverse consequences on the environment and people. More exactly, urbanization aggravates natural risks and creates additional artificial risks; this is a key issue for urban planning, which can reduce the exposure and negative outcomes if its provisions are properly enforced. This article is based on observations from Bejaia, Algeria. Each year, the city suffers from disasters including floods, forest fires and landslides. This situation has led to the question whether urban planning observes the regulations from other domains. In order to answer it, different risks threatening the city were modeled and mapped. The results consist of computing the number of buildings situated within non-aedificandi zones by the type of risk. The results show that 15,832 buildings violate the law. Moreover, natural hazards (78.31%) are a more important threat than the artificial ones (21.69%). The most important natural risks are due to forest fires (44.82%), and the explosion of the industrial zones (15.24%) is the dominant artificial risk. The findings show that planning can help reducing the risk exposure within the urban areas, if the planning provisions are properly enforced. Moreover, the article makes a significant contribution to demonstrating the possible consequences of sacrificing long-term safety for short-term political interests.