Author: Carlos Siordia
and Douglas F. Wunneburger
Social scientists investigating how context varies by geographical location and/or how macro-level phenomenon affects individual outcomes often make use of U.S. Census Bureau Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) files where micro-units can only be geographically located to Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) polygons. Most spatial analysis investigations with PUMAs ignore the fact that many of them are multipart polygons—spatially separated polygons that share the same attribute and are stored as a single feature in a vector file. We briefly discuss the theoretical premises of how geo-graphical boundaries are created for macro units and investigate the quantity, degree, and location of PUMA fragmenta-tion. We argue that the basic contiguity principle (the assumption that spatial analysis uses polygon centroids for solid and contiguous geographic units) in spatial dependence analysis is being violated with many PUMAs in the U.S. mainland—where Texas, California, Tennessee, and Illinois merit special attention. Future research should outline a method for handling multipart polygons in spatial and hierarchical analyses.
Author: Claudia Popescu
At international level, industrial clusters have drawn the attention of researchers and policy-makers through their role in revitalizing local economies and generating regional growth. This article analyses the way in which the Italian footwear and textile companies have transferred the concept of Marshallian district from the “Third Italy” to Western Romania. Empirically, the study explains why and how the Italian shoe and textile-makers have relocated their basic production activities to Timişoara. The analysis reveals the development path of the cluster in Timişoara in the context of important barriers to innovation and lack of visibility for local and regional authorities.
Author: Juan Cervantes
This paper examines the interactions between issues such as ideology, neoliberalism, institution-building and sustainable development. The central focus of the paper is to demonstrate that the neoliberalism hasn’t succeeded just because it is an economic strategy which better serves the interests of the capitalist class (though it must be stressed that this fact has obviously contributed) but mainly because it has been promoted as an attractive economic strategy by respected, well organized and transnationalized institutions all around the globe, and understand the reasons behind this institutional support. After reviewing the interrelationships between the Bretton-Woods institutions and their relationship with the concepts of neoliberalism and sustainable development, the paper concludes claiming that the so-called neoliberal ideology operates behind the discourses of growth, progress and sustainability and that it is in charge of softening domination by diffusing legitimating ideas and granting concessions to subordinate forces, thus implying significations and values that transcend the possible manipulation of the world as an object.
Author: Alena Drábková
The development of the recreational use of forests demands a greater understanding of the profile, preferences and opinions of visitors to these forests. A questionnaire survey was held in Cansiglio forest in northern Italy, which has become a very famous recreational area where many people come to spend their leisure time. The objective of this paper is to ascertain specifics about forest visitors, their preferences of forest structure and shape, and their other opinions, e.g. about regional problems with red deer. Results showed, among other, that almost ¼ of respondents were bikers, the rest were hikers, and the majority was from nearby cities and villages. Most of respondents go to forests from six to eleven times per year, more than ½ of them are satisfied with this frequency of forest visits. Knowing which type of forest visitors generally look for and what kind of activities they want to enjoy there is very important information and useful for management in research areas.
Author: Asif Ishtiaque
and Md. Sofi Ullah
There are several factors, responsible for rural-urban migration, influence the migrant’s migration status. The main objective of this paper to discuss the influence of migration factors on the determination of migration status of the rural-urban migrants’. As a case study, this study purposively selected the largest slum of Bangladesh according to single criterion- high concentration of rural-urban migrants. A total of 263 face to face interviews and 5 FGDs were conducted. Respondents, who are household heads of the migrant families, were chosen randomly and interviewed using both open ended and close ended questionnaires and for data analyses, respondents were categorized into two divisions- temporary and permanent migrants. Multivariate analyses show that both push and pull factors influence the migration status of migrants’, however, social factors, except occupation at rural origin, do not have any considerable influences.
Author: Barbora Duží
and Jiří Jakubínský
The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the procedures of urban brownfield solutions, with a focus on the envi-ronmental and cultural-historical aspects. The paper explores the dilemmas of brownfield regeneration and redevel-opment. These processes are placed in the wider perspective of multi – transformation processes of post-communist cities. We com¬pared two former industrial zones – Karolina and the Lower Area of Vítkovice in the city of Ostrava – where we illustrated the key factors influencing their transformation. These case studies point to a unique example of urban industrial brownfields concentrated within the area around the city centre, surrounded by residential zones. These brownfields also reveal the scope of the problem, as they are connected not only with the urban structure, but also with environmental, economic, so¬cial and cultural aspects. To research the issue in depth, we mostly used a qualitative approach to examine perceptions and to frame the brownfield issue. We partly applied frame analysis, a narrative approach and we also used research techniques such as document content analysis, and in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders who are involved in the remediation of brownfields and their subsequent re-use (N₌15). We researched how stakeholders perceive and frame the problem and which solutions they prefer. Moreover, having made a comparison of the state of affairs between 2001 and 2012, we presented a deeper insight into the topic. We found quite a wide range of opinions toward the brownfields issue and its solutions. The main issues were related to people striving to find the identity of the city and the tension between the old and the new: looking for the direction of future development and the face of the city of Ostrava. We identified location, level of environmental degradation and social-economic conditions as the main factors that influence the brownfield issue.
Author: Bogdan Suditu
and Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu
The emergence of informal settlements in Romania is the result of a mix of factors, including some social and urban planning policies from the communist and post-communist period. Squatting was initially a secondary effect of the relocation process and demolition of housing in communist urban renewal projects, and also a voluntary social and housing policy for the poorest of the same period. Extension and multiple forms of informal settlements and squatting were performed in the post-communist era due to the inappropriate or absence of the legislative tools on urban planning, properties’ restitution and management, weak control of the construction sector. The study analyzes the characteristics and spatial typologies of the informal settlements and squatters in relationship with the political and social framework of these types of housing development.
Author: Shamindra Nath Roy
and Ritwika Mukherjee
This study attempts to carry out an empirical investigation regarding the role of marriage as a structural constraint to women’s employability in India. The National Sample Survey data based analysis shows that the heterogeneity of women’s employment is significantly controlled by their orientation to work where marriage acts as an important mediating factor. Significant differences are observed between the workforce participation of currently married and never married women across different educational attainment and socio-demographic segments. However, the way marriage operates as a formal barrier to women’s workability merely depends on the historically available opportunities and constraints experienced by them.