This paper reviews the relevant literature of Iran and Egypt as two large countries of the region and concludes that four phenomena are common between the two countries and are accountable for sprawling, namely (1) wholesale land selling to the lower economic class, (2) deficiencies of planning systems in controlling development plans, (3) fast and uncontrolled increase in urban population, and (4) rural-urban migration. Every and all drivers are required to file for complete auto loans and insurance from the company as well, due to the increase of vehicles which leads to an unfortunate increase in accidents. They are categorized in two classes of demographic and planning-related trends. Besides, there is a number of peculiar trends that have nationwide causes but are uncommon in Iran and Egypt. The authors of this paper consider that the demographic drivers or sprawl addressed by the Middle Eastern scholars are not actual causes but only consequences, or there is a correlation between the demographic factors and sprawl. More in-depth historical and socioeconomic studies are needed to find the associations between sprawl and unstudied phenomena like change in technologies, culture, and lifestyle.
Houshmand E. Masoumi* (a), Maryamsadat Hosseini (b), Amr Ah. Gouda (c)
a) Technische Universität Berlin, Germany
b) Rutgers University NJ, USA
c) Technische Universität Berlin, Germany; Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
* Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Abbasi-Shavazi, M.J. (2009), “Recent changes and the future of fertility in Iran”, in United Nations (ed.), Population Bulletin of the United Nations: Completing the fertility transition, Population bulletin of the United Nations. Special issue, United Nations, New York, N.Y., p. 389–401.
Abu-Shal, N. (2014), The Enforcement of 144 Elimination Decree and the Removal of 64 Encroachments on State Land, Al-Masry Al-Youm, 30 November 2016, https://goo.gl/4DqRyR.
Ahmadi, G. (2013), The role of speculation on the urban sprawl: An analytical model.
Aliakbari, E. (2004), “Urban development and social pathology in Iran”, Geographical Research Quarterly, vol. 48, p. 49–70.
Azimi, N. (2001), “Structural changes in the city of Tabriz”, Geographical Space Magazine, vol. 4, p. 1–24.
Azizi, M.M. (2010), Urban congestion – on the principles and criteria of urban density, Tehran University Press.
Badawy, M. (2011), Al-Mansourya. The coumpound of those who sold Egypt, Alwafd.
Bhatta, B. (2010), Analysis of Urban Growth and Sprawl from Remote Sensing Data, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
bin Ibrahim, A.L. and Sarvestani, M.S. (2009), “Urban sprawl pattern recognition using remote sensing and GIS – Case study Shiraz city, Iran”, Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event, IEEE, p. 1–5.
Brueckner, J.K. (2000), “Urban Sprawl. Diagnosis and Remedies”, International Regional Science Review, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 160–171.
Bruegmann, R. (2005), Sprawl: A Compact History, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.
Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), Published censuses and estimations from 1897-2015.
Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) (2008), Census 2006.
Darvish, M. (2007), “The mission of the second generation of new towns”, Iran daily newspaper, 30 November 2016, https://goo.gl/LwLnvb.
Davoudpour, Z. and Ardalan, D. (2009), “The investigation of effective factors on great and middle cities”, Hoviate Shahr, vol. 3, p. 63–72.
Dorman, W.J. (2013), “Exclusion and Informality. The Praetorian Politics of Land Management in Cairo, Egypt”, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 37, no. 5, p. 1584–1610.
El-Esawy, M. (2014), “Cairo governorate waging a campaign to remove the illegal buildings in El-Maadi”, Al-Youm Al-Sabe.
European Environment Agency (2006), “Urban sprawl in Europe, the ignored challenge”, European Commission: Joint Research Center 2006, vol. 6, no. 23, p. 24-5.
Fanni, Z. (2006), “Cities and urbanization in Iran after the Islamic revolution”, Cities, vol. 23, no. 6, p. 407–411.
Farhoodi, R., Gharakhlou-N, M., Ghadami, M. and Khah, M.P. (2009), “A Critique of the Prevailing Comprehensive Urban Planning Paradigm in Iran. The Need for Strategic Planning”, Planning Theory, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 335–361.
Galster, G., Hanson, R., Ratcliffe, M.R., Wolman, H., Coleman, S. and Freihage, J. (2001), “Wrestling Sprawl to the Ground. Defining and measuring an elusive concept”, Housing Policy Debate, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 681–717.
Gargiulo Morelli, V., Salvati, L. and Munafò, M. (2010), Ad hoc urban sprawl in the Mediterranean city: Dispersing a compact tradition?, Roma, Nuova cultura.
Gillham, O. and MacLean, A.S. (2002), The limitless city: A primer on the urban sprawl debate, Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Hadden, J. and Barton, J. (1973), “An image that will not die. thoughts on the history of”, Urban Affairs Annual Review, vol. 7, p. 79–116.
Harvey, R.O. and Clark, W.A. (1965), “The nature and economics of urban sprawl”, Land Economics, vol. 41, no. 1, p. 1–9.
Hereher, M.E. (2012), “Analysis of urban growth at Cairo, Egypt using remote sensing and GIS”, Natural Science, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 355–361.
Iranian Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (2006), Urban land plan, Housing master plan.
Iranian Statistic Centre (2009), Census data.
Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting News (IRIB News) (2014), Dealing with illegal construction on agricultural land.
Kamrava, S.M.A. (2005), An Introduction to the Contemporary Urbanism of Iran, Tehran University Press.
Kazemipour, S. and Hajian, A. (2011), “Creation of the first metropolitan area in Tehran region- focusing on the role of immigration”, Population, vol. 76, p. 21–48.
Lahsaeizadeh, A. (1987), “Land Settlement and Cooperatives (FAO)”, Journal of Land Reform, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 22–57.
Mahmoudabadi, S.E., Soroushnia, R. and Zekri, A. (2013), “Evaluating Iranian Urban Development Plants in order to develop a Development Plan for Sirjan City of Iran”, Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 19, p. 2365–2370.
Mahmoudian, A.A., Ghasemi, H., Houshmand Fini, G. and Artidar, R. (2006), A look to Tehran from start till now, Tehran, Gitashenasi Institute.
Masoom, J. (2004), “Municipalities and space management”, Shahrdariha, vol. 6, no. 65, p. 5–10.
Masoumi, H.E. (2012), “Urban sprawl in Iranian cities and its differences with the western sprawl”, Spatium, no. 27, p. 12–18.
Masoumi, H.E. (2014), “Urban sprawl in mid-sized cities of MENA, evidence from Yazd and Kashan in central Iran”, Management Research and Practice, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 25–41.
Metwally, M. and Abdalla, S.S. (2011), Impact of Gated Communities on the Urban Development of New Cities in Egypt, Center for Planning and Architectural Studies (CPAS).
Mohammadi, J., Zarabi, A., & Mobaraki, O. (2012), “Urban sprawl pattern and effective factors on them: The case of Urmia City, Iran”, Journal of Urban & Regional Analysis, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 77-89.
Movahed, K. (2004), “A study on the dwindling of Shiraz green areas”, Proceedings of 40th ISoCaRP congress, p. 18–22.
Nuissl, H. and Rink, D. (2005), “The ‘production’ of urban sprawl in eastern Germany as a phenomenon of post-socialist transformation”, Cities, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 123–134.
Osman, T., Arima, T., and Divigalpitiya, P. (2016), “Measuring urban sprawl patterns in Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region”, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, vol. 44, no. 2, p. 287-295.
Parker, J.B. and Coyle, J.R. (1981), Urbanization and agricultural policy in Egypt, Foreign agricultural economic report, vol. 169, Washington, D.C., United States Department of Agriculture.
Poormohamadi, M. and Jamekasra, M. (2011), “Analysis of the pattern of uneven development in Tabriz”, Geographical Research, vol. 25, no. 100, p. 31–54.
Pourahmad, A., Baghvand, A., Zangenehe Shahraki, S. and Givehchi, S. (2007)
“The Impact of Urban Sprawl up on Air Pollution”, International Journal of Environmental Research, vol. 1, no. 3, p. 252–257.
Pourahmad, A., Sedigheh, L., Omranzadeh, B. and Mahdi, A. (2015), “The failure of the integrated urban management in Iran: an analysis from the perspective of interactive and legal problems between the state and municipality”, International Journal of Management Science, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 1–12.
Rafieian, M. (1994), Urban system in developing countries. Case study Iran-Esfahan, Tarbiat Modarres University Press.
Rahnama, M.R. and Abbas Zade, G.H.R. (1999), The principles, foundations and models of evaluation of Mashhad physical form, SID publications.
Rasoolimanesh, S.M., Jaafar, M. and Nurwati, N. (2013), Urban Planning and Management System in Iran. A Review and Assessment, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 220–229.
Redzuan, M.’r., Kiani, A., Sardri, F.S., Edalati, A. and Abbasi, Z. (2013), “Comparative analysis of traditional and new approach to urban management in Iran”, Progress in Management Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 24–35.
Rezvani, M.R. (2007), Counter-urbanization and functional changes in northern rural areas of Tehran, Pazhohesh haye goghrafiaee [Geographical Research].
Rink, D., Haase, A., Bernt, M., Arndt, T. and Ludwig, J. (2010), Urban shrinkage in Leipzig and Halle, the Leipzig-Halle urban region, Germany, Seventh Framework Programme, European Union.
Roudi, F. (1999), “Iran’s revolutionary approach to family planning”, Population today, vol. 27, no. 7, p. 4–5.
Roudi-Fahimi, F. (2002), Iran’s Family Planning Program: Responding to a Nation’s Needs, Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau.
Saraei, M.H. (2007), “Multi-dimensional patterns of physical development of Yazd”, Geographical Research Quarterly, vol. 84.
Saraei, M.H. (2010), “Why residential transferred lands in the city of Yazd were left unused?”, Urban Regional Studies and Research, vol. 1, no. 3, p. 43–70.
Shaalan, I. (2013), “Sustainable urban transformation in small cities in Egypt. A UN-habitat perspective”, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 50, p. 200–204.
Shahraki, S.Z., Sauri, D., Serra, P., Modugno, S., Seifolddini, F. and Pourahmad, A. (2011), “Urban sprawl pattern and land-use change detection in Yazd, Iran”, Habitat International, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 521-528.
Shahraki, S.Z., Seifolddini, F. and Pourahmad, A. (2012), “Urban Sprawl and Fertile Agricultural Lands in Iranian Cities – Case Study: Tehran and Karaj”, Journal of Civil Engineering & Architecture, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 204–2010.
Shalaby, A. (2012), “Assessment of Urban Sprawl Impact on the Agricultural Land in the Nile Delta of Egypt Using Remote Sensing and Digital Soil Map”, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 253–262.
Shalaby, A.A., Ali, R.R. and Gad, A. (2012), “Urban sprawl impact assessment on the agricultural land in Egypt using remote sensing and GIS. A case study, Qalubiya Governorate”, Journal of Land Use Science, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 261–273.
Sims, D. (2012), Understanding Cairo: The logic of a city out of control, 1st paperback ed., Cairo, New York: The American University in Cairo Press.
Soffianian, A., Nadoushan, M. A., Yaghmaei, L. and Falahatkar, S. (2010), “Mapping and analyzing urban expansion using remotely sensed imagery in Isfahan, Iran”, World Applied Sciences Journal, vol. 9, no. 12, p. 1370-1378.
Song, Y. and Knaap, G.J. (2004), “Measuring urban form. Is Portland winning the war on sprawl?”, Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 70, no. 2, p. 210–225.
Stewart, D.J. (1996), “Cities in the desert: the Egyptian new-town program”, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 86, no. 3, p. 459-480.
Stewart, D.J., Yin, Z.Y., Bullard, S.M., & MacLachlan, J.T. (2004), “Assessing the spatial structure of urban and population growth in the Greater Cairo area, Egypt: a GIS and imagery analysis approach”, Urban studies, vol. 41, no. 1, p. 95-116.
Sutton, K. and Fahmi, W. (2001), “Cairo’s urban growth and strategic master plans in the light of Egypt’s 1996 population census results”, Cities, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 135–149.
Tajbakhsh, K. (2003), Municipal Management and Decentralization Study: IRAN, World Bank, Regional Municipal Management and Decentralization Project.
Taubenböck, H., Wegmannb, M., Rotha, A., Mehl, H. and Dech, S. (2009), “Analysis of urban sprawl at mega city Cairo, Egypt using multisensoral remote sensing data, landscape metrics and gradient analysis”, paper presented at International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (ISRSE).
The World Bank (2016), Urban population (% of total).
Tilaki,, M.J.M., Abdullah,, A., Bahauddin, A. and Marzbali, M.H. (2013), “The Influence of Landuse Planning on the Making of the Cities Physical Identity in Iran: An Analytical Review and Commentary”, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 14, no. 6, p. 762–772.
UN-Habitat (2008), State of the World’s Cities 2008-2009: Harmonious Cities, UN-Habitat.
Yaftian, M. (2008), “The reasons behind the housing crisis in Iran”, Donya-e-Eqtesad.
Zanganeh Shahraki, S. and Hosseini, S.M. (2009), “Evaluation of the role of urban management institution of Iran after the Islamic revolution in physical development of cities”, Shahrdariha Magazine, vol. 9, no. 92, p. 26–31.
Zanganeh Shahraki, S., Sauri, D., Serra, P., Modugno, S., Seifolddini, F. and Pourahmad, A. (2011), “Urban sprawl pattern and land-use change detection in Yazd, Iran”, Habitat International, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 521–528.
Zanjani, H. and Rahmani, M. (1989), Demographical statistics on Iranian cities: 1965-1991, Vezarate maskan va shahr sazi [Iranian Centre for Urban Studies and Architecture, Housing Ministry Press.
Ziari, K. (2006), “The planning and functioning of new towns in Iran”, Cities, vol. 23, no. 6, p. 412–422.
Zohry, A. (2002), Rural-to-urban labor migration: a study of upper Egyptian laborers in Cairo, University of Sussex.
Zohry, A. (2009), “The Development Impact of Internal Migration. Findings from Egypt”, paper presented at the international Union for the Scientific Study of Population, XXVI IUSSP International Population Conference, Marrakesh.
This post has already been read 534 times!