Author: Carlos Siordia
, Curtis Smith
and Ernesto Castañeda-Tinoco
Understanding the geographical distribution and correlates of special segments of the population has the potential for offering insight into human behavior. Our study examines the Emergency and Transitional Shelter Population (ETSP)—which includes what are commonly referred to as “homeless” people. We use 2010 data from two sources: United States (US) Census Bureau county-level ETSP estimates; and North America Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2). We investigate the ecological correlates of ETSP concentration by using a geographically-aware multilevel linear model. The specific aim is to investigate if an how atmospheric temperature is related with ETSP concentration by county—after accounting for population density and percent non-Hispanic-White. We use ArcGIS® 10.1 to create a spatial weight matrix of the ten most proximal counties and use SAS® 9.3 to create an algorithm that estimates County Cluster Dyadic Averages (CCDAs). By nesting the 31,090 CCDAs over the 3,109 counties in the continental US, we find a positive and statistically significant relationship between ETSP density and atmospheric temperature. Ecological studies should continue to explore the spatial heterogeneity of the ETSP.
Author: Tara Brabazon
Is Burgundy more than a region in France, or could it refer to a style of wine making? Food and wine are not only derived from a place. They make a place. Other industries are enabled through food and wine, particularly tourism. ‘Region’ has a distinctive role in framing the brand and profile of a wine bottle. ‘Region’ mitigates risk for a consumer. Region is a proxy for quality. This article investigates the impact of the legal protection and control of regionality on formerly colonized nations, with particular consequences on wine industries. By exploring Houghton’s White Burgundy and its transformation into White Classic, the impact of protecting regionality on formerly colonized nations is revealed.
Author: Ellis A. Adams
and Kathleen E. Halvorsen
Almost a billion people globally lack access to potable water. In the early 1990’s, attempts to improve potable water access in the global south included a massive push for water services privatization, often involving the transfer of public water services to private companies. Critics of water privatization claim it rarely improves access to water, and in most cases, unfairly affect poor people. Proponents on the other hand argue that it is necessary for efficient management and capital investment in the water sector. Although development NGOs play an important role in developing country water provision, hardly any studies have sought to understand their perceptions about the potential role of water privatization towards improving access to potable water in developing countries. We interviewed the key staff among 28 international and national NGO staff about water privatization, its opportunities and constraints. Their perceptions were mixed. While most criticized water privatization as increasing water costs to the poor, some noted that privatization is necessary for improving water access through increased capital investment. We present the findings and discuss larger implications for water policies and reforms in developing countries.
Author: Stanislav Kraft
his study focuses on one of the most important processes in our society: daily mobility. Its importance has grown over the last decades. From the geographical point of view, the growing level of mobility has a whole array of geographical causes and impacts.In the first phase, the study analyses the main features of daily mobility in the Czech Republic based on official statistics. In the second phase, it evaluates detailed daily mobility research in selected regions of the Czech Republic through case studies. The monitored regions were Písek and Bystrice nad Pernštejnem within their administrative regions. It brings new and original information about daily mobility, transport behaviour, modal split, average travel time, etc. and their differences evaluated by particular population groups (age, economic activity, gender, etc.) and by three main mobility measures. The study tries to fill a gap in the research of daily mobility and transport behaviour in the Czech Republic.
Author: Murtala Ibraheem Chindo
, Ali I. Naibbi
and Abubakar Abdullahi
Nigeria is a resource-rich country and has become extraordinarily dependent on the oil sector, which accounts for over 90 per cent of exports and government revenues, and contributes up to one third of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product). Evidences have shown that Nigeria’s resource wealth has not translated into meaningful development. For example, while other countries realised positive outcomes from mineral-based developments, Nigeria’s poor state of development is assumed to be a product of the pathologies that are collectively known as the ‘resource curse’. This paper examines various literatures about the resource curse thesis by focusing on the experience of Nigeria, Africa’s largest oil and gas producer and exporting country. The result shows that corruption, government complacency, the Dutch disease, lack of public accountability, neglect of education and excessive external debt/borrowing overhang are all hampering the development goals of the country. Whilst the measurements that support this conclusion were made at the national level, this paper opined and called for the Nigerian resource curse measurements to be looked at from the local scale (communities), where the resource economy hits the ground.
Author: Gyula Dézsi
, Gábor Kozma
and Károly Teperics
The present paper studies the spatial distribution of elementary and secondary schools in a particular Hungarian settlement, Debrecen, the second largest city of country. In the course of the analysis factors influencing spatial distribution and the differences among certain historical periods are discussed. In the period before World War II location of elementary and secondary schools was influenced primarily by religion. Following World War II the increase of the number of inhabitants outside the city centre and especially the construction of new housing estates resulted regarding elementary schools in a significant decentralization. Urban plans prepared after World War II also regarded spatial decentralisation important in the case of the secondary schools, however, this was realized only in the case of vocational secondary schools and vocational schools. In the period after 1990 the appearance of new institute maintainers can be regarded as a determinant factor and this also resulted in decentralization.
Author: Igor Okunev
and Aleksey Domanov
The quantitative analysis of an opinion poll conducted in October 2013 in three Russian cities located near Finnish border (St-Petersburg, Kronstadt and Vyborg) explores European identity of their citizens. This area was chosen to illustrate the crucial importance of space interpretation in spatial identity formation by using critical geopolitical approach. The study shows how different images of space on the same territory act as intermediate variables between objective territorial characteristics and citizens’ identities. As the geographical position at the border of Russia provides the citizens with geopolitical alternatives to identify their location as a fortress defending the nation (as in the case of Kronstadt) or a bridge between cultures, the given study allows us to compare reasons for these geopolitical choices of inhabitants. Furthermore, the research aims at bridging the gap in the studies of European and multiple identity in Russian regions and provides Northwest Russian perspective on the perpetual discussion about subjective Eastern border of Europe.
Author: Ana-Maria Roanghes–Mureanu
and Anca Tudoricu
Nowadays tourism has undoubtedly become essential to both national and international economies and each country is currently trying to face the challenges imposed by this industry. In this respect, Romania has introduced a new range of treatments in the spa tourism field which proved to be therapeutic for a significant number of patients. The article aims to assess the feasibility of spa tourism in Vâlcii Subcarpathians offering a clear analysis of the evolution of the material and technical base of the resort. Therefore, the study focused on the evaluation of both natural and man-made resources favourable to the emergence and development of the spa resorts from Vâlcea County, Romania. At the same time, the authors gave it a touch of originality by shaping the development perspectives of Vâlcea Subcarpathian region. The research has a solid theoretical background based on relevant papers and fundamental studies in spa tourism meant to offer a significant overview of the subject. The main results are based on a survey which was conducted in order to determine the quality degree of the accommodation and treatment in the region under study as well as the accessibility of the population to such services. At the same time, the paper outlines the main weaknesses and opportunities regarding the activities of spa tourism in Vâlcea Subcarpathians as a starting point for a further development strategy.