This study examined the pedestrians’ safe and unsafe behaviour before and during street crossing in three cities in South Western Nigeria. 1,214 pedestrians were observed at crossing sites using direct observation approach. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression. In all, 730 (60.1%) of the observed pedestrians were male, and 484 (39.9%) were female. The analysis of the data showed that safe crossing practices were generally high, as over 50% of pedestrians at different stages of the crossing process were categorized as exhibiting safe observation behaviour. In terms of crossing tempo, Chi-square test revealed significant difference between male (65.1%) than female (56.0%) pedestrians (χ2=10.12, d=1, p=0.000). While ANOVA showed significant variation in the risky crossing behaviour among the cities (F (2, 1211) =71.93, P< 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that adult pedestrians are 0.79 times more likely to exhibit safe crossing behaviour than younger pedestrians and pedestrians are 0.42 times more likely to exhibit safe crossing when vehicles are moving on one side of the road than when there is no vehicular movement. The study suggests measures to enhance safe street crossing behaviour in the sampled cities and other cities in Nigeria.
Moses Olaniran Olawole*, Adewale Mukhtar Olayiwola
Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
* Correspondence address. Email: email@example.com
Aaladelusi, T.O., Akinmoladun, I.V, Olusanya, O.O, Akadiri, O.A. and Fasola, A.O. (2014), “Evaluation of pedestrian road traffic maxillofacial injuries in a Nigerian tertiary hospital”, Afr J Med Med Sci, no.4, p. 353-9.
Bungum, T.J., Day, C., and Henry, J. (2005), “The association of distraction and caution displayed by pedestrians at a lighted crosswalk”, Journal of Community Health, vol. 30, no. 4, p. 269–279.
Damsere-Derry, J., Ebel, B.E., Mock, C.N., Afukaar, F. and Donkor, P. (2010), “Pedestrians’ injury patterns in Ghana”, Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 42, no. 4, p. 1080–1088.
Diaz, E.M. (2002), “Theory of planned behaviour and pedestrians’ intentions to violate traffic regulations”, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 5, p. 169–175.
Hassan, H.M. and Al-Faleh, H. (2013), “Exploring the risk factors associated with the size and severity of roadway crashes in Riyadh”, Journal of Safety Research, vol. 47, no. 2013, p. 67–74.
Hatfield, J. and Murphy, S. (2007), “The effects of mobile phone use on pedestrian crossing behaviour at signalized and unsignalised intersections”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 39, p. 197–205.
Huth, V., Sanchez, Y. and Brusque, C. (2014), “Drivers’ phone use at red traffic lights: A roadside observation study comparing calls and visual–manual interactions”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 74, p. 42–48.
MacLeod, K.E., Griswold, J.B., Arnold, L.S. and Ragland, D.R. (2012), “Factors associated with hit-and-run pedestrian fatalities and driver identification”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 45, p. 366–372.
Nasar, J. and Troyer, D. (2013), “Pedestrian injuries due to mobile phone use in public places”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 57, p. 91–95.
Nasar, J., Hecht, P. and Werner, R. (2008), “Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 40, p. 69–75.
National Population Commission (NPC) (2006), Official Gazatte (FGP 71/52007/2,500/OL24): Legal Notice on Publication of the Details of the Breakdown of the National and State Provisional Totals 2006 Census.
Neider, M.B., McCarley, J.S., Crowell, J.A., Kaczmarski, H. and Kramer, A.F. (2010), “Pedestrians, vehicles, and cell phones”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 42, p. 589–594.
Odeleye, J.A. (2002), “Zebra crossing and pedestrian safety management in road trafficenvironment in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria”, 15th ICTCT Workshop on Speed management strategies and implementation planning, evaluation, behavioural, legal and institutional issues, Brno, Czech Republic, October 23- 25.
Ogendim J., Odero, W., Mitullah, W. and Khayesi, M. (2013), “Pattern of pedestrian injuries in the city of Nairobi: implications for urban safety planning”, Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine.
Olawole, M.O. (2008), “Accessibility characteristics of rural population in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State”, M.Sc Thesis, Department of Geography, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Olawole, M.O. (2017), “Gender aspects of street crossing behaviour among undergraduates: An observational study”, Ghana Journal of Geography, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 1–22.
Parker, D., Manstead, A.S.R., Stradling, S.G., Reason, J.T. and Baxter, J.S. (1992), “Intention to commit driving violations: An application of the theory of planned behavior”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 77, no. 1, p. 94-101.
Pešić, D., Antić, B., Glavić, D. and Milenkovic, M. (2016), “The effects of mobile phone use on pedestrian crossing behaviour at unsignalized intersections – Models for predicting unsafe pedestrians’ behaviour”, Safety Science, vol. 82, p. 1–8.
Poo, F.M., Ledesma, R.D. and Trujillo, R. (2018), “Pedestrian crossing behavior, an observational study in the city of Ushuaia, Argentina”, Traffic Injury Prevention, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 305-310.
Rosenbloom, T., Nemrodov, D. and Barkan, H. (2004, “For heaven’s sake follow the rules: pedestrians’ behavior in an ultra-orthodox and a non-orthodox city”, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 7, no. 6, p. 395–404.
Rosenbloom, T., Ben-Eliyahu, A. and Nemrodov, D. (2008), “Children’s crossing behaviour with an accompanying adult”, Safety Science, vol. 46, p. 1248–1254.
Rosenbloom, T. (2009), “Crossing at a red light: Behaviour of Individuals and groups”, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 12, p. 389 – 394.
Rosenbloom, T. (2011), “Traffic light compliance by civilians, soldiers and military officers”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 43, p. 2010– 2014.
Seipone B.M., Mphele, S.B.M., Selemogwe, M.M., Kote, M. and Balogun, S.K. (2013), “Who Owns the Road? Exploring Driver and Pedestrian Behaviour at Zebra/Pedestrian Crossings in Gaborone, Botswana”, British Journal of Arts and Social Science, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 121-130.
Sisiopiku, V.P. and Akin, D. (2003), “Pedestrian behaviours at and perceptions towardsvarious pedestrian facilities: an examination based on observation and survey data”, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 6, p. 249–274.
Solagberu, B.A., Balogun, R.A., Mustafa, I.A., Ibrahim, N.A., Oludara, M.A. Ajani, A.O., Idowu, O.E. and Osuoji, R.I. (2015), “Pedestrian Injuries in the Most Densely Populated City in Nigeria – An Epidemic calling for Control”, Traffic Injury Prevention, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 184-189.
Tiwari, G., Bangdiwala, S. and Saraswat, A. (2007), “Survival Analysis: Pedestrian Risk Exposure at Signalized Intersections”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 10, p. 77– 89.
Tom, A. and Granié, M.-A. (2011), “Gender differences in pedestrian rule compliance and visual search at signalized and unsignalized crossroads”, Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 43, no. 5, p. 1794–1801.
WHO, (2015), World Health Organization – Global Status report on road safety 2015, p.340, viewed 12 March 2017, https://goo.gl/YXHdWZ.
Yagil, D. (2000), “Beliefs, motives and situational factors related to pedestrians’ self-reported behaviour at signal-controlled crossings”, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 1–13.
Zhang, G., Li, G., Cai, T., Bishai, D.M., Wu, C. and Chan Z. (2014), “Factors contributing to hit-and-run crashes in China”, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 23, p. 113–124.
Zhou, R., Horrey, W. J. and Yu, R. (2009), “The effect of conformity tendency on pedestrians’ road-crossing intentions in China: An application of the theory of planned behavior”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 41, no. 3, p. 491-97.
Zhuang, X. and Wu, C. (2011), “Pedestrians’ crossing behaviours and safety at unmarked roadway in China”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 43, no. 6, p. 1927– 1936.
This post has already been read 301 times!