Charting geographic mental maps in foreign policy analysis: A literature review

Author:
Key words: , ,
Issue: Volume 6, Issue 1, 2012

Abstract


In recent years geographic mental maps have made a comeback into the spotlight of scholarly inquiry in the area of Foreign Policy Analysis (FPA). While never disappearing completely from scholarly examination, geographic mental maps were side-lined in most geographic and international relations (IR) research agendas. While geographers had long acknowledged the importance of mental maps in the study of international politics, few studies centred on the influence of geographic cognition on foreign policy. Only with the cognitive revolution in IR did geographic mental maps find space to develop conceptually and empirically with regards to international politics. Beginning with Henrikson’s initial conceptualisation over three decades ago the mental map research agenda has adopted several different theoretical and methodological approaches which will be analysed in the current article.

Full text



Permalink (doi)



Authors Affiliations


International Relations Department, University of Coimbra, Portugal
Email: luisdavinha@gmail.com

References


Agnew, J 2003, Geopolitics- Re-visioning World Politics, Routledge, New York.
Akçali, E 2009, Chypre: Un enjeu géopolitique actuel, L’Harmattan, Paris.
Allen, G 1985, ‘Strengthening Weak Links in the Study of the Development of Macrospatial Cognition’ in R Cohen (ed) The Development of Spatial Cognition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 301-321.
Battersby, S & Montello, D 2009, ‘Area Estimation of World Regions and the Projection of the Global-Scale Cognitive Map’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 99 (2), 273-291. [CrossRef]
Bell, P, Greene, T, Fisher, J & Baum, A 1996, Environmental Psychology, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, Florida.
Bialasiewicz, L, Campbell, D, Elden, S, Graham, S, Williams, A 2007, ‘Performing Security: The Imaginative Geographies of Current US Strategy’, Political Geography, 26, 405-422. [CrossRef]
Bilgin, P 2004, ‘Whose ‘Middle East’? Geopolitical Inventions and Practices of Security’, International Relations, 18 (1), 25-41. [CrossRef]
Casey, S & Wright, J (eds) 2008, Mental Maps in the Era of Two World Wars, Palgrave-Macmillan, New York.
Casey, S & Wright, J (eds) 2011, Mental Maps in the Early Cold War Era, 1945-68, Palgrave-Macmillan, New York.
Claval, P 2006, História da Geografia, Edições 70, Lisboa.
Criekemans, D 2011, ‘Réhabilitation et Rénovation en Matière de Pensée Géopolitique’, L’Espace Politique. 12 (3), 2-13.
Criekemans, D 2009, ‘Where ‘geopolitics’ and ‘foreign policy analysis’ once met: the work of Harold and Margaret Sprout and its continued relevance today’, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA’s 50th Annual Convention Exploring the Past, Anticipating the Future.
Criekemans, D & Duran, M 2011, ‘Mental Maps, Geopolitics and Foreign Policy Analysis: Basic Analytical Framework and Application to Sub-state Diplomacy in the Mediterranean’, Paper presented at the WISC – Third Global International Studies Conference.
da Vinha, L 2011a, ‘Assessing the Conceptual ‛Goodness’ of Geographic Mental Maps for Foreign Policy Analysis’ Romanian Review on Political Geography. 13 (2), 133-148.
da Vinha, L 2011b, ‘Georeferencing Foreign Policy: The Role of Geographic Mental Maps in Foreign Policy Decision-Making’, Paper presented at the WISC – Third Global International Studies Conference.
da Vinha, L 2010, ‘Acquiring Geographic Knowledge in International Politics’, Universitas: Relações Internacionais, 8 (2), 53-94.
Dalby, S 2010, ‘Recontextualising Violence, Power and Nature: The Next Twenty Years of Critical Geopolitics?’ Political Geography, 29 (5), 280-288. [CrossRef]
Dijkink, G 1998, ‘Geopolitical Codes and Popular Representations’, GeoJournal. 46 (4), 293-299. [CrossRef]
Dodds, KJ 1994, ‘Geopolitics and Foreign Policy: Recent Developments in Anglo-American Political Geography and International Relations’, Progress in Human Geography. 18 (2), 186-208. [CrossRef]
Dodds, KJ 2001, ‘Political Geography III: Critical Geopolitics after Ten Years’, Progress in Human Geography. 25 (3), 469-484. [CrossRef]
Downs, R & Meyer, J 1978, ‘Geography and the Mind: An Exploration of Perceptual Geography’, American Behavioral Scientist. 22 (1), 59-77. [CrossRef]
Downs, R & Stea, D (eds) 2005a, Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
Downs, R & Stea, D 2005b, ‘Cognitive Maps and Spatial Behavior: Process and Products’ in R Downs & D Stea (eds) Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 8-26.
Glassman, J 2005, ‘On the Borders of Southeast Asia: Cold War geography and the construction of the other’, Political Geography, 24, 784-807. [CrossRef]
Golledge, R 2003, ‘Reflections on Recent Cognitive Behavioral Research with an Emphasis on Research in the United States of America’, Australian Geographical Studies, 41 (2), 117-130. [CrossRef]
Golledge, R 2002, ‘The Nature of Geographic Knowledge’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 92 (1), 1-14. [CrossRef]
Golledge, R & Stimson, R 1997, Spatial Behavior: A Geographic Perspective, The Guilford Press, New York.
Golledge, R & Timmermans, H 1990, ‘Applications of Behavioural Research on Spatial Problems I: Cognition’, Progress in Human Geography, 14 (1), 57-99. [CrossRef]
Gould, P & White, R 1974, Mental Maps, Penguin Books, Middlesex.
Henrikson, A 2008, ‘FDR and the ‘World-Wide Arena’’ in D Woolner, W Kimball, & D Reynolds (eds) FDR’s World: War, Peace, and Legacies, Palgrave-Macmillan, New York, 35-61.
Henrikson, A 2002, ‘Distance and Foreign Policy: A Political Geography Approach’, International Political Science Review, 23 (4), 437-466. [CrossRef]
Henrikson, A 1980a, ‘The Geographical ‘Mental Maps’ of American Foreign Policy Makers’, International Political Science Review, 1 (4), 495-530. [CrossRef]
Henrikson, A 1980b, ‘America’s Changing Place in The World: From ‘Periphery’ to ‘Centre’?’ in J Gottman (ed.) Centre and Periphery: Spatial Variation in Politics, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, California, 73-100.
Henrikson, A 1975, ‘The Map as an ‘Idea’: The Role of Cartographic Imagery during the Second World War’, The American Cartographer. 2 (1), 19-53. [CrossRef]
Holsti, O 1976, ‘Foreign Policy Formation Viewed Cognitively’ in R Axelrod (ed.) Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political Elites, Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey, 18-54.
Holsti, O 2006, ‘Cognitive Process Approaches to Decision-Making: Foreign Policy Actors Viewed Psychologically’ in O Holsti (ed) Making American Foreign Policy, Routledge, New York, 33-51.
Hudson, V & Vore, C 1995, ‘Foreign Policy Analysis Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow’, Mershon International Studies Review, 39 (2), 209-238. [CrossRef]
Kitchin, R & Blades, M 2002, The Cognition of Geographic Space, I B Tauris & Co Ltd, New York.
Kitchin, R & Freundschuh, S (eds) 2002, Cognitive Mapping: Past, Present and Future, Routledge, London.
Latham, A 2001, ‘China in the Contemporary American Geopolitical Imagination’, Asian Affairs: An American Review, 28 (3), 138-145. [CrossRef]
LeGates, R & Stout, F (eds) 1997, The City Reader, Routledge, New York.
Le Rider, J 2008, ‘Mitteleuropa, Zentraleuropa, Mittelosteuropa: A Mental Map of Central Europe’, European Journal of Social Theory, 11 (2), 155-169. [CrossRef]
Lewis, M & Wigen, K 1997, The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography, University of California Press, London.
Lloyd, R 1982, ‘A Look at Images’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 72 (4), 532-548. [CrossRef]
Lloyd, R 1989, ‘Cognitive Maps: Encoding and Decoding Information’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 79 (1), 101-124. [CrossRef]
Lynch, K 1960, The Image of the City, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, Cambridge.
Mark, D, Freksa, C, Hirtle, S, Lloyd, R & Tversky, B 1999, ‘Cognitive Models of Geographical Space’, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 13 (8), 747-774. [CrossRef]
Montello, D 1998, ‘A New Framework for Understanding the Acquisition of Spatial Knowledge in Large-Scale Environments’ in M Egenhofer & R Golledge (eds) Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in Geographic Information Systems, Oxford University Press, New York, 143-154.
Montello, D & Freundschuh, S 1995, ‘Sources of Spatial Knowledge and their Implications for GIS: An Introduction’, Geographical Systems, 2, 169-176.

Moore, G 1979, ‘Knowing About Environmental Knowing’, Environment and Behavior, 11 (1), 33-70. [CrossRef]
Moore, G & Golledge, R 1976, ‘Environmental Knowing: Theories and Concepts’ in G Moore & R Golledge (eds) Environmental Knowing: Theories, Research and Methods, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 3-24.
O’Loughlin, J & Grant, R 1990, ‘The Political Geography of Presidential Speeches, 1946-87’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 80 (4), 504-530. [CrossRef]
Ó Tuathail, G 1992, ‘The Bush Administration and the ‘End’ of the Cold War: A Critical Geopolitics of US Foreign Policy in 1989’, Geoforum, 23 (4), 437-452.
Ó Tuathail, G & Agnew, J 1998, ‘Geopolitics and Discourse: Practical Geopolitical Reasoning in American Foreign Policy’ in Ó Tuathail, G Dalby & S Routledge (eds) The Geopolitics Reader, Routledge, New York, 78-91.
Saarinen, T 2005, ‘Student Views of the World’ in R Downs &D Stea (eds) Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 148-161.
Saarinen, Thomas (1987), Centering of Mental Maps of the World: Discussion Paper. Tuscon, Arizona: University of Arizona.
Scheffler, T 2003, ‘‘Fertile Crescent’, ‘Orient’, ‘Middle East’: The Changing Mental Maps of Southwest Asia’, European Review of History, 10 (2), 253-272. [CrossRef]
Sloan, G 1988, Geopolitics in the United States Strategic Policy, 1890-1987, St. Martin’s Press, New York.
Snyder, R, Bruck, H & Sapin, B (eds) 2002, Foreign Policy Decision-Making (Revisited), Palgrave-Macmillan, New York.
Sprout, H & Sprout, M 1957, ‘Environmental Factors in the Study of International Politics’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1 (4), 309-328. [CrossRef]
Sprout, H & Sprout, M 1960, ‘Geography and International Politics in an Era of Revolutionary Change’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 4 (1), 145-161. [CrossRef]
Sprout, H & Sprout, M 1965, The Ecological Perspective on Human Affairs: With Special Reference to International Politics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey
Thomas, M (ed.) (forthcoming), The French Colonial Mind: Mental Maps of Empire and Colonial Encounters, University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln, NE.
Tolman, E 1948, ‘Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men’, The Psychological Review, 55 (4), 189-208.
[CrossRef] PMid:18870876
Trowbridge, C 1913, ‘On Fundamental Methods of Orientation and ‘Imaginary Maps’’, Science, 38 (990), 888-896.
[CrossRef] PMid:17752423
Tversky, B 2003, ‘Structures of Mental Spaces: How People Think About Space’, Environment and Behavior, 35 (1), 66-80. [CrossRef]
Unwin, T 1995, El Lugar de la Geografía, Cátedra, Madrid.
Walker, M 2000, ‘Variable Geography: America’s mental maps of Greater Europe’, International Affairs, 76 (3), 459-474. [CrossRef]
Wolpert, J 1964, ‘The Decision Process in Spatial Context’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 54 (4), 537-558. [CrossRef]

This post has already been read 2517 times!