The ageing trend and related socio-economic issues in Vietnam

Key words: , , , ,
Issue: Volume 15, Issue 1, 2021


Vietnam is among the most rapidly ageing countries in the world. Its ageing index of increased during the past 35 years. In 2019, the ageing index was 49% for the population aged 60 years and older and 33% for the population aged 65 and older. At the same time, the proportion of older people living alone has been increasing. The main objective of this study is to examine the problem of older people living alone in Vietnam using the logit regression and data from the 2014 Intercensal Population and Housing Survey. In 2014 the proportion of people living alone was 3.2% among people aged 60 years and older but was 16.4% among seniors aged 80 years and older. The regression analysis shows that women were more likely to live alone than men, and the probability of living alone was higher among older people with a lower assets level than those with a higher assets level.

Full text

Permalink (doi)

Authors Affiliations

Nguyen Viet Cuong* (1)
1) International School, Vietnam National University; Thang Long Institute of Mathematics and Applied Sciences (TIMAS), Thang Long University, Vietnam
* Correspondence address.


Bucher, S. (2012), “Aspects of the phenomenon of demographic population aging in Czechia and Slovakia: Time and regional dimensions”, Human Geographies – Journal of Studies & Research in Human Geography, vol. no. 1, p. 25-33.
Chen, Y., Hicks, A. and While, A.E. (2014), “Quality of life and related factors: a questionnaire survey of older people living alone in Mainland China”, Quality of Life Research, vol. 23, no. 5, p. 1593-1602.
Chou, K.L. and Chi, I. (2000), “Comparison between elderly Chinese living alone and those living with others”, Journal of Gerontological Social Work, vol. 33, no. 4, p. 51-66.
Corden, A., Hirst, M. and Nice, K. (2008), “Financial implications of death of a partner”, Social Policy Research Unit, University of York.
Dang, N.A., Tackle, C. and Hoang, X.T. (2003), “Migration in Viet Nam: A review of information on current trends and patterns, and their policy implications”, Paper presented at the Regional Conference on Migration, Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia, 22-24 June 2003, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Deaton, A. (1986), “Life-cycle models of consumption: Is the evidence consistent with the theory?”, NBER Working Papers 1910, National Bureau of Economic Research.
Deaton, A. (2005), “Franco modigliani and the life cycle theory of consumption”, Research Program in Development Studies and Center for Health and Wellbeing, Princeton University.
Filmer, D. and Pritchett, L.H. (2001), “Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data-or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India”, Demography, vol. 38, no. 1, p. 115–132.
Filmer, D. and Scott, K. (2008), Assessing Asset Indices, The World Bank.
Gaymu, J., Delbès, C., Springer, S., Binet, A., Désesquelles, A., Kalogirou, S. and Ziegler, U. (2006), “Determinants of the living arrangements of older people in Europe”, European Journal of Population, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 241-262.
Gee, E.M. (2000), “Living arrangements and quality of life among Chinese Canadian elders”, Social Indicators Research, vol. 51, p. 309–329.
Giang, T.L. and Pfau, W.D. (2007), “The elderly population in Vietnam during economic transformation: an overview”, MPRA Paper No. 24948, Munich Personal RePEc Archive.
Glewwe, P. (1991), “Investigating the determinants of household welfare in Cote d’Ivoire”, Journal of Development Economics, vol. 35, no. 2, p. 307-337.
Green, H.W. (2011), Econometric Analysis, Prentice Hall Publisher.
Kharicha, K., Iliffe, S., Harari, D., Swift, C., Gillmann, G. and Stuck, A.E. (2007), “Health risk appraisal in older people 1: are older people living alone an ‘at-risk’ group?”, British Journal of General Practice, vol. 57, no. 537, p. 271-276.
Kolenikov, S. and Angeles, G. (2009), “Socioeconomic status measurement with discrete proxy variables: Is principal component analysis a reliable answer?”, The Review of Income and Wealth, vol. 55, p. 128-165.
Lee, J.J. (2005), “An exploratory study on the quality of life of older Chinese people living alone in Hong Kong” in D.T.L. Shek, Y.K. Chan and S.N Lee (eds.) Quality-of-Life Research in Chinese, Western and Global Contexts, p. 335-361, Springer, Dordrecht.
Lee, M. and Kim, K. (2014), “Prevalence and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults living alone in South Korea, The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, vol. 78, no. 2, p. 115-131.
Lee, R.D. (2014), “Macroeconomic consequences of population aging in the United States: Overview of a national academy report”, American Economic Review, vol. 104, no. 5, p. 234-239.
Legare, J. and Martel, L. (2003), “Living arrangements of older persons in the early ninety’s: an international comparison”, Genus, vol. 59, no. 1, p. 85–103.
Long, G.T. (2010), “Social protection in Vietnam: Current state and challenges” in M.G. Asher, S. Oum and F. Parulian (eds.) Social Protection in East Asia – Current State and Challenges, ERIA Research Project Report 2009-9, Jakarta: ERIA, p. 292-315.
Mui, A.C. (1998), “Living alone and depression among older Chinese immigrants”, Journal of Gerontological Social Work, vol. 30, p. 147–166.
Nguyen, C. (2016), “Does parental migration really benefit left-behind children? Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam”, Social Science & Medicine, vol. 153(C), p. 230-239.
Nguyen, C. and Pham, T. (2016), “Are migrants in large cities underpaid? Evidence from Vietnam”, IZA Journal of Migration, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 1-23.
Nguyen, C. and Vu, L. (2016), “Should Parents Work Away from or Close to Home? The Effect of Parental Absence on Children’s Time Use in Vietnam”, Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 110-124.
Otsu, K. and Shibayama, K. (2016), “Population aging and potential growth in Asia”, Asian Development Review, vol. 33, no. 2, p. 56-73.
Park, D. and Shin, K. (2012), “Impact of population aging on Asia’s future growth”, ADB Economics Working Paper Series, no. 281, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines.
Pew Research Center (2019), Religion and living arrangements around the world, Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C. USA, 12 march 2020,
Reher, D. and Requena, M. (2018), “Living alone in later life: A global perspective”, Population and Development Review, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 427-454.
Requena, M., Reher, D., Padyab, M. and Sandström, G. (2019), “Women living alone in later life: A multicountry comparative analysis”, Population, Space and Place, vol. 25, no.7, p. 22-69.
Restrepo, H.E. and Rozental, M. (1994), “The social impact of aging populations: some major issues”, Social Science & Medicine, vol. 39, no. 9, p. 1323-1338.
Rolls, L., Seymour, J.E., Froggatt, K.A. and Hanratty, B. (2011), “Older people living alone at the end of life in the UK: research and policy challenges”, Palliative Medicine, vol. 25, no. 6, p. 650-657.
Shin, S.H. and Sok, S.R. (2012), “A comparison of the factors influencing life satisfaction between Korean older people living with family and living alone”, International Nursing Review, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 252-258.
Tran, T.Q., Nguyen, C.V. and Van Vu, H. (2018), “Does economic inequality affect the quality of life of older people in rural Vietnam?”, Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 781-799.
World Bank (2016), World Development Indication, World Bank, 15 January 2020,
World Bank (2018), World Development Indicators, World Bank, 15 January 2020,
Yenilmez, M.I. (2015), “Economic and social consequences of population aging the dilemmas and opportunities in the twenty-first century”, Applied Research in Quality of Life, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 735-752.
Zebhauser, A., Baumert, J., Emeny, R.T., Ronel, J., Peters, A. and Ladwig, K.H. (2015), “What prevents old people living alone from feeling lonely? Findings from the KORA-Age-study”, Aging & mental health, vol. 19, no. 9, p. 773-780.

This post has already been read 12234 times!

About journal

Title: Human Geographies - Journal of Studies and Research in Human Geography
ISSN online: 2067-2284
ISSN print: 1843-6587
Imprint: University of Bucharest
Frequency: Biannual (May&November)
First volume: 1/2007
Current volume: 18/2024
Language: English
Indexed in: SCOPUS, ERIH PLUS, EBSCO (SocINDEX), ProQuest (Social Science Journals, SciTech Journals, Natural Science Journals), Index Copernicus, National Technical Information Service (NTiS), Bodleian Libraries, ExLibris SFX, DOAJ, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library, Google Scholar, Ulrich
Creative Commons License


Prof. dr. Liliana Dumitrache
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography- Human and Economic Geography Department, 1 Nicolae Balcescu Av., 010041, Bucharest, Romania

Dr. Daniela Dumbrăveanu
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography- Human and Economic Geography Department, 1 Nicolae Balcescu Av., 010041, Bucharest, Romania

Dr. Mariana Nae
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography- Human and Economic Geography Department, 1 Nicolae Balcescu Av., 010041, Bucharest, Romania

Dr. Gabriel Simion
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography- Human and Economic Geography Department, 1 Nicolae Balcescu Av., 010041, Bucharest, Romania

SCImago Journal & Country Rank